Mohenjo Daro Archeology and World UNESCO Sites Informational Video

Mohenjo-Daro is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.

Mohenjo-Daro is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Built around 2500 BCE, it was the largest settlement of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, and one of the world’s earliest major cities, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Minoan Crete, and Norte Chico.

With an estimated population of at least 40,000 people, Mohenjo-Daro prospered until around 1700 BCE.

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Mohenjo-Daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, and the site was not rediscovered until the 1920s.

 Significant excavation has since been conducted at the city’s location, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980, the first site in South Asia to be so designated.


The city’s original name is unknown. Based on his analysis of a Mohenjo-Daro seal, Iravatham Mahadevan speculates that the city’s ancient name could have been Kukkutarma (“the city  -RMA of the cockerel kukkuta “).

Cock-fighting may have had ritual and religious significance for the city. Mohenjo-Daro may also have been a point of diffusion for the clade of the domesticated chicken found in Africa, Western Asia, Europe, and the Americas.

Mohenjo-Daro, the modern name for the site, has been interpreted as “Mound of the Dead Men” in Sindhi.


Mohenjo-Daro is located off the right (west) bank of the lower Indus river in Larkana District, Sindh, Pakistan. It lies on a Pleistocene ridge in the flood plain of the Indus, around 28 kilometers (17 mi) from the town of Larkana.

Historical context;

Mohenjo-Daro was built in the 26th century BCE.  It was one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, also known as the Harappan Civilization,  which developed around 3,000 BCE from the prehistoric Indus culture.

At its height, the Indus Civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, extending westwards to the Iranian border, south to Gujarat in India, and northwards to an outpost in Bactria, with major urban centers at Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Lothal, Kalibangan, Dholavira, and Rakhigarhi.

 Mohenjo-Daro was the most advanced city of its time, with remarkably sophisticated civil engineering and urban planning.

When the Indus civilization went into sudden decline around 1900 BCE, Mohenjo-Daro was abandoned

Rediscovery and excavation;

The ruins of the city remained undocumented for around 3,700 years until R. D. Banerji, an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India, visited the site in 1919–20 identifying what he thought to be a Buddhist stupa (150–500 CE) known to be there and finding a flint scraper which convinced him of the site’s antiquity.

This led to large-scale excavations of Mohenjo-Daro led by K. N. Dikshit in 1924–25, and John Marshall in 1925–26.

In the 1930s major excavations were conducted at the site under the leadership of Marshall, D. K. Dikshitar, and Ernest Mackay. Further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Mortimer Wheeler and his trainee, Ahmad Hasan Dani.

 The last major series of excavations were conducted in 1964 and 1965 by George F. Dales. After 1965 excavations were banned due to weathering damage to the exposed structures, and the only projects allowed at the site since have been salvage excavations, surface surveys, and conservation projects.

In the 1980s, German and Italian survey groups led by Michael Jansen and Maurizio Tosi used less invasive archeological techniques, such as architectural documentation, surface surveys, and localized probing, to gather further information about Mohenjo-Daro.

A dry core drilling conducted in 2015 by Pakistan’s National Fund for Mohenjo-Daro revealed that the site is larger than the unearthed area.

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Architecture and urban infrastructure;

Mohenjo-Daro has a planned layout with rectilinear buildings arranged on a grid plan.

Most were built of fired and mortared brick; some incorporated sun-dried mud-brick and wooden superstructures.

The covered area of Mohenjo-Daro is estimated at 300 hectares.

The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History offers a “weak” estimate of a peak population of around 40,000.

The sheer size of the city, and its provision of public buildings and facilities, suggest a high level of social organization.

The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel, and the Lower City. The Citadel – a mud-brick mound around 12 meters (39 ft) high – is known to have supported public baths, a large residential structure designed to house about 5,000 citizens, and two large assembly halls.

 The city had a central marketplace, with a large central well.

Individual households or groups of households obtained their water from smaller wells.

Waste water was channeled to covered drains that lined the major streets.

Some houses, presumably those of more prestigious inhabitants, include rooms that appear to have been set aside for bathing, and one building had an underground furnace (known as a hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing. Most houses had inner courtyards, with doors that opened onto side lanes. Some buildings had two stories.

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Discovering Pakistan’s Sacred Places: A Tourist’s Guide to the Most Popular Mosques, Temples and Shrines

Pakistan is a country with a rich cultural and historical heritage, and this is reflected in the numerous religious sites that can be found throughout the country. These sites are not only of religious significance, but also attract many tourists from all over the world.

One of the most popular religious tourist destinations in Pakistan is the city of Lahore, which is home to the famous Badshahi Mosque. Built in the 17th century by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, the mosque is one of the largest in the world and can accommodate up to 100,000 worshippers. The mosque’s unique blend of Islamic and Hindu architectural styles makes it a must-see for tourists.

Badshahi Mosque

Another important religious site in Lahore is the Data Durbar Complex, which is a shrine dedicated to the Sufi saint Hazrat Ali Hajveri. The complex is also home to the tomb of the famous poet-philosopher Allama Iqbal. The shrine is a popular pilgrimage site and attracts thousands of visitors every year.

Hazrat Ali Hajveri

Moving to the north of Pakistan, the city of Skardu is home to the Khaplu Palace, which is a famous religious and historical site. The palace was built in the 19th century and is an excellent example of the traditional architecture of the region. It is also believed to be the site of a famous Sufi saint and attracts many visitors who come to pay their respects.

city of Skardu is home to the Khaplu Palace

Another important religious site in the north of Pakistan is the Katas Raj Temple Complex, which is located in the Chakwal district of Punjab. The complex is believed to be more than 3,000 years old and is dedicated to Lord Shiva. The complex is also home to several other temples and is a popular pilgrimage site for Hindus.

Katas Raj Temple Complex

In the South of Pakistan, in the province of Sindh, is the city of Thatta, which is home to the Makli Necropolis, a vast complex of tombs and graves that date back to the 15th century. The necropolis is a UNESCO World Heritage site and is one of the largest funerary sites in the world. The complex is also home to several Sufi shrines and is a popular pilgrimage site for Muslims.

Finally, in the western province of Balochistan, the city of Quetta is home to the Hazrat Khudadad Shrine, which is dedicated to a famous Sufi saint. The shrine is a popular pilgrimage site and attracts many visitors every year.

These are just a few examples of the many religious sites that can be found in Pakistan. Whether you are interested in Islamic, Hindu, or Sufi culture, there is something for everyone in this diverse and fascinating country.

In conclusion, Pakistan is a country with a rich cultural and historical heritage, which is reflected in the numerous religious sites that can be found throughout the country. These religious places not only hold religious significance but also attract many tourists from all over the world. From the famous Badshahi mosque in Lahore to the Makli Necropolis in Sindh, there is something for everyone in Pakistan.

Makli Necropolis in Sindh


A high level meeting was held today at China Embassy between Her Excellency Ms. Pang Chunxue, Charge de Affairs, Chinese Embassy in Pakistan and Mr. Awn Chaudhry, Advisor to Prime Minister on Tourism and Sports and Mr. Aftab ur Rehman Rana, Managing Director of PTDC to discuss the promotion of bilateral tourism between Pakistan and China.

Discussion was held on improving facilitation for the tourists on both sides to enhance people to people contact on the occasion of year 2023 which has been declared by both the countries to be celebrated as the year of China-Pakistan Year of Tourism Exchange.

Mr. Chaudhry conveyed the best wishes to Her Excellency on the occasion of Chinese New Year starting from 22nd January this year. He said, China Pakistan friendship is everlasting and two brotherly counties need to enhance cooperation in tourism sector to increase the flow of tourists from both sides which will be greatly be helpful in improving the people to people contact between the two counters.

Mr. Aftab Rana, MD PTDC especially emphasized on the need to promote group tours through the registered tourism operators of both the countries to provide convenient way to enjoy touristic sites through guided group tours.

He also recommended about the opening of Khunjrab Pass for tourist traffic as it provides easy access to the visitors of both the countries. He also shared a brief having various recommendations to promote bilateral tourism with Her Excellency, Ms. Pang Chunxue, Charge de Affairs, Chinese Embassy in Pakistan.

Her excellency Ms. Pang Chunxue, highly appreciated the idea of improving people to people contact during the year of 2023 and agreed to provide all support and assistance for the promotion of bilateral tourism between China and Pakistan.

The Tomb of Shah Rukn e Alam World UNESCO Architecture Sites

The Tomb of Shah Rukn e Alam World UNESCO Architecture Sites

The Tomb Of Shah Rukn-E-Alam Located In Multan, Pakistan, Is The Mausoleum Of The 14th-Century Punjabi Sufi Saint Sheikh Rukn-Ud-Din Abul Fateh.

The Tomb of Shah Rukn e Alam World UNESCO Architecture Sites

The shrine is considered the earliest example of Tughluq architecture and is one of the most impressive shrines in the Indian subcontinent. The shrine attracts over 100,000 pilgrims to the annual yours festival that commemorates his death The tomb is located in the ancient city of Multan, in central Pakistan. The tomb is situated at the northwestern edge of the Multan Fort The tomb, built-in 1320-24 A.D., lies inside Multan Fort.

This elegant building is an octagon in plan with a diameter of 15′ 9ù and a side measuring 20’6″. It is the first octagonal tom in the South Asia subcontinent. The special features in the construction of the Shrine are the tapering walls, horizontal wooden beams embedded at the exterior of brickwork and a wooden frame built with horizontal and vertical beams. One of the main important features of the Shrine is the carved wooden Mehrab, a delicate and intricate piece of work, which is the earliest specimen of its kind in the whole South Asian Sub-continent. The structure is built entirely in red brick, the whole exterior elaborately decorated with glazed tile panels in string courses and merlons.

The colours used are Indian blue, Persian blue and white, which contrast with the red of the finely dressed bricks. The enamelled tiles of this tomb are of a special type having relief patterns, raised from half an inch to two inches from the background. The second storey, also octagonal, is elaborately decorated with geometric, floral and arabesque designs. It is further beautified by calligraphic motifs, brick design in relief pattern of caustic tiles and ornamental brickwork The shrine’s layout is typical of Suhrawadi tombs, with three entrances, a western-facing mihrab, and an original main entrance on the southern axis that featured a small vestibule. The main entrance has since been shifted to the east, in an attempt to align the shrine’s axises with Mecca, in accordance with orthodox interpretations of Islam.

The mausoleum is a three-tiered structure. Though the second octagonal tier is typical of Multan, the first tier in the shape of an octagon differs from the nearby Shrine of Bahauddin Zakariya and other earlier shrines which rests upon a square-shaped base. The first tier is 15 metres in diameter and features walls 4 feet thick. The first tier features bands of timber that create a visual break in the exterior brickwork. The octagonal first tier is buttressed by small minaret-shaped towers in each of its 8 corners that provide support to the structure, and narrow as they rise and surpass the height of the first tier. A second octagon rests upon the first tier that features small domes in each of the eight corners of the building. A third tier rests above the second and is formed by a dome of 15 metres in diameter.

The entire structure is 35 metres tall, with sloping walls. The dome is capped by a structure similar to an amalaka found in Hindu temples. The mausoleum is built entirely of red brick, bounded by beams of shisham wood, which have turned black over the centuries. The exterior is elaborately ornamented with carved wooden panels, carved brick, string courses and battlements.

If you want to tour Pakistan’s UNESCO and historical sites from any country in the world, contact our company Kamrat Tourism PVT Limited. Visit our website www.kumratturism.com for tour packages Buttresses, turrets, and crenellations

at the top of the shrine reflect the influence of Tughluq military architecture on even non-military buildings The exterior is further embellished with regional-style tile-work in floral, arabesque, and geometric motifs with dark blue, azure, and white tiles – all of which contrast the deep red finely polished bricks.

The white dome is decorated with blue tile-work along its lower perimeter. The shrine’s vast interior features no internal buttresses, nor any interior structural elements to support the interior space, which results in a vast interior space.

The interior was initially decorated with elaborate tile work, which was subsequently covered in plaster, though vast interior of the mausoleum is now largely bare. Niches at the ground level serve to enlarge the interior space further.


Exploring the Ancient City of Sari Bahlol: A Guide to Pakistan’s Historical Site

Sari Bahlol is an ancient city and archaeological site located near Takht-i-Bahi in the northern district of Pakistan.

Located about 45 kilometers east of Islamabad, the city covers an area of about 100 square kilometers.

The city is believed to have been founded by the Kushan dynasty and flourished from the 1st to the 5th centuries AD.
During its peak, the city was an important center of trade and commerce and was home to several Buddhists and merchants. The ruins of the city are now part of the Takht-i-Bahi National Park and are a popular tourist attraction.

History of Sari Bahlol

Archaeological evidence suggests that Sari Bahlol was founded in the 1st century AD by the Kushan dynasty. The city became an important center of trade and commerce and was home to several Buddhists and merchants. The city was protected by a wall and was surrounded by an elaborate water system.

Mardan Museum

The museum was established in 1991 and was extended further in 2006.The museum is furnished with Archeological Artifacts of this Region which was center of Buddhism and Kushan Empire . It has islamic and ethnological collection too.The place is worth visiting.

During the rule of the Kushan dynasty, Sari Bahlol was a flourishing center of trade and commerce. The city was home to a large number of merchants, and the city’s markets and workshops were filled with goods from all over the world. The city was also an important center of Buddhist culture, and it is believed that the city was home to several Buddhist monasteries and temples.

In the 5th century AD, the city was conquered by the White Huns and was destroyed. The city was abandoned and the ruins of the city were forgotten until the 19th century.



The ruins of Sari Bahlol were rediscovered in the 19th century by British explorers. Archaeological excavations of the city began in the 1950s and have revealed several important artifacts and structures.

The archaeological excavations of Sari Bahlol have revealed the remains of a large number of Buddhist monasteries and temples. The remains of these monasteries and temples are believed to date back to the 1st century AD. The ruins of the city also include a large number of residential buildings and fortifications.

The ruins of Sari Bahlol also include a large number of artifacts and sculptures. The artifacts include coins, pottery, jewelry, and other objects. The sculptures include reliefs and statues of Buddhist deities.

Present Day

The ruins of Sari Bahlol are now part of the Takht Bahlul National Park. The park is a popular tourist destination and is home to several archaeological sites, including the ruins of Sari Bahlol. The park is also home to several wildlife, including leopards, tigers, and rhinoceroses.



Sari Bahlol is an ancient city and archaeological site located near Takht Bahlul in northern Pakistan. The city was founded by the Kushan dynasty and flourished from the 1st to the 5th centuries AD. The ruins of the city are now part of the Takht Bahlul National Park and are a popular tourist attraction.
The ruins of the city have revealed several Buddhist monasteries and temples, residential buildings, fortifications, and a large number of artifacts and sculptures. The park is also home to several wildlife, making it a popular destination for visitors.

ruins Taxila in Pakistan

Exploring the Ancient Ruins of Taxila in Pakistan

Taxila, located in the Rawalpindi District of Punjab, Pakistan, is one of the most important archaeological sites of ancient India and remains an incredible glimpse into the life and culture of the ancient civilisation that once thrived in the region.

This ancient city, located on the banks of the River Indus, is one of the most renowned cities of the Indian subcontinent and was, for over 1000 years, a major centre for trade, learning, and political activity.

Taxila is believed to have been founded by Taksh, the son of Bharat (the brother of Rama in Hindu mythology). The city was considered so impressive by the Greek historian Megasthenes that he referred to it as the ‘largest and most affluent city in India’, and it was a major hub for trade and commerce for centuries. As a result, Taxila represents an incredibly diverse mix of different cultures, art and architecture from the Hindu, Buddhist and Jain traditions. The city flourished from around 600 BC and was eventually abandoned in the mid-6th century AD, due to the emergence of nearby cities and the gradual deterioration of the area, as well as incursions by foreign invaders.

Today, the ruins of Taxila are a fascinating reminder of the incredible and advanced culture that once thrived here. The ruins of Taxila have been listed as a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO, and the site is the most visited archaeological site in the whole of Pakistan.

ruins Taxila in Pakistan
ruins Taxila in Pakistan

The site is comprised of three distinct components—the Buddhist Taxila, the Hindu Taxila, and the Jain Taxila, which together form the ancient city’s rich cultural, historical and archaeological heritage. The Buddhist Taxila refers to the remaining remains of the three Buddhist monasteries—Dharmarajika, Bara Kot and Jaulian—which were constructed to promote the spread of Buddhism in Taxila in the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC. The monasteries were built with intricately carved stone and decorated with elegant painted designs, which are still visible today. It is here that the famous teaching of the Buddha was first brought to Taxila.

The second part of the Taxila site consists of the ruins of the Hindu shrines, temples and stupas that were built during the 5th and 6th centuries AD. The most prominent of these is the Hindu shrine known as Udegram, which was built on a hill overlooking the town. This ancient temple was believed to have been dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu, and its grand stone columns, carved archways, and intricately carved walls still remain in existence today.

The third and final part of the Taxila site relates to the Jain temples that were built during the 6th and 7th centuries AD. These sacred Jain monuments are considered to be some of the finest examples of Jain architecture in the world. The most significant of these is the Jain stupa of Bhadbhavga, which stands atop a hill overlooking the city. The stupa was built in honour of Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, and is decorated with intricate stone carvings depicting scenes from Mahavira’s life.

ruins Taxila in Pakistan
ruins Taxila in Pakistan

The ruins of Taxila are one of the most revered archaeological sites in Pakistan. Every year thousands of visitors come to explore its incredible history and appreciate its unique architecture. The ruins have also been the centre of much research, with many archaeologists exploring the site in order to gain more insight into the lives and beliefs of the ancient civilisation that once flourished in Taxila.

Not only do the ruins of Taxila provide a glimpse into the past, but they also highlight the potential of the ancient city if it had not been abandoned. Today, the site is a popular tourist attraction and is a great way to learn more about the history and culture of the region. Taxila is a truly remarkable part of Pakistan’s cultural history, and visiting the site provides a unique insight into the lives and beliefs of its former inhabitants.

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